Community-driven change

With the increasing pace of modern-day agriculture, often the health of the environment and consumers’ well-being is overlooked. This is evident across the globe, with many farmers opting for high-intensity farming to maximize crop and meat yields to meet consumer demands.

However, some groups of people are working towards more sustainable agriculture, through development of community-based projects and indigenous-based technology. By adopting indigenous knowledge, technology can be adapted to harness local resources better. The outcome of these projects look a little different, depending on whether it is for a developed or developing country. I want to share two case studies from the UK and Indonesia, both of which use the local community to develop and build technology that are environmentally-friendly, sustainable and educational. As someone who is both Indonesian and British, I have seen a few of these examples first-hand, engaged in conversations with project leaders and played a minor role in setting up similar projects.

A UK-based case study which has helped to demonstrate community-based agriculture is Riverford Organic Farmers Ltd. In the late 1980s, Guy Watson turned to organic farming and started distributing his locally-grown produce to family and friends via a weekly vegetable box scheme. Quickly, the network of box-scheme deliveries expanded, now with more than 47,000 boxes delivered a week to customers around the country. The focus of this scheme is to grow varieties for their flavor rather than their appearance, avoiding the use of pesticides, instead adopting integrated pest management. The boxes’ contents range from root vegetables to soft vegetables and salads, to fruit and meats. In order to deliver high quantities of boxes across the country, Riverford has formed a mutual co-operation of British farmers who are committed to organic, sustainable farming, and together they produce, pack and supply the boxes. They pride themselves in the quick turnaround of supply, with food taking no more than 2 days from harvesting to delivery.

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Guy Watson with one of the various Riverford veg boxes.

Another case study, this time from Indonesia, involves Rus Alit from the Bali Appropriate Technology Institute (BATI). I have personally met him and stayed with him. Born and raised in Bali, Indonesia, he noticed the difficulties elderly people in his village faced collecting water. Villagers were unable to access the nearby spring, meaning they had to hike long distances and rough terrain to access clean water. Although the village spring was inaccessible, the rate at which it pumped water – 38 drums every 24 hours – was perfect for a technology boost. Rus designed a prototype of a hydraulic ram pump, which enables water to be powered from a source that is lower than the desired outsource. Village leaders were skeptical about the technology, but once they saw the prototype in action, it was enough to encourage them to adopt the system and build it, along with Rus’ guidance. The villagers now had a pump that delivered water from the once-inaccessible spring into a holding tank in the village. Soon enough each house had piping which delivered clean water. Not only was the pump easy and cheap to install, it also instilled a desire in Rus to develop more sustainable, cheap and simple technology for communities around Indonesia that would otherwise struggle to get hold of this technology. As a result, BATI was born. Rus spends time developing technology alongside rural indigenous communities, working with their resources and knowledge. The mandate is that once a community has learned how to use a particular technology, they teach and help nearby communities. Twice a year, BATI runs week-long courses for eager learners from across Asia. They come away with new knowledge of building water pumps, roads and bridges, learning sustainable agriculture, irrigation and animal husbandry. These skills, no longer taught in our modern society, have helped shape the future of many rural and indigenous communities not only in Indonesia, but across Asia. All because of one man and BATI.

The development of community and indigenous-based technology for sustainable development has helped to create a more resilient society, a society that knows how to use their environment to their advantage, ensuring they always have enough food and water. However, there is a difference between the technology and projects showcased here. With countries like Indonesia, there is a greater focus on developing technology and agriculture systems that are not only sustainable, but will increase community health, either through increased yields of staple crops from smallholdings or the provision of clean water. The technology needs to be appropriate for the local indigenous community, utilizing local resources and requiring no or little outside energy sources, reducing environmental footprint. With countries like the UK, communities lean towards developing a more organic way of farming, with preferences for produce taste rather than appearance. The price of food is no longer the main driver for growing food; if foods are produced in an organic or sustainable way, consumers will pay.

The factor that binds these countries together is the desire to make agriculture more sustainable, for the sake of the environment and well-being of consumers. There is an urgent need to peel back the principles of farming (terrestrial or aquaculture) to highlight sustainable farming practices which are accessible to all communities whether they are developed or developing. Inventors can be made anywhere; it is essential that the next generation is taught the importance of the environment and sustainable agriculture, and the skills to develop appropriate technology to meet the requirements of each community. Only then can communities shift towards creating a self-preserving society.

Now I just have to play my part.

#community

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Community, technology, sustainability

Three important words. Community. Technology. Sustainability. In this day and age it is absolutely crucial that our scientific advances become more sustainable if we are to maintain and grow our agriculture communities and develop better technology for feeding and taking care of the world.

 

Last week I attended the AC21 International Graduate School 2017 at Universitas Gadjah Mada (UGM) in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Around 45 students attended the week-long summer school, with Indonesia, South Africa, Australia, Americas, Europe, Thailand, Japan and China represented. The title of the summer school was ‘Community and indigenous-based technology for sustainable development towards resilient society’. This topic was given to us in a variety of different ways, through lectures, workshops, community service, internship and excursions. It was highlighted that universities need to become a bridge between the work they do (whether it is science or humanities) and the surrounding communities. By doing this, it creates an awareness in the students towards problems faced by their surrounding communities. In turn it can create a healthy relationship between university and community and aid in developing research-based community service.

The two lectures that stuck with me the most were presented by lecturers from UGM. Dr. Murtiningrum not only highlighted the importance of soil in agriculture, but how water plays a role in soil physics and behaviour. She got us to think about how the area of arable soil available in Indonesia affects how the people farm. She got us into groups of 7, and told us stand on a piece of newspaper; at first, only one person was allowed on the newspaper, then 3, then all 7 group members. She made us think strategically in how to maximise space yet still fit all of our group on that newspaper sheet. This is how the Indonesian farmers must think, they must be strategic in their farming practices, otherwise they cannot maximise crop yields or economic yield.

Prof. Irfan Dwidya Prijambada gave a very energetic seminar on community empowerment for sustainable technology transfer. He is a key helper in developing community service projects between communities and undergraduate students from UGM. He talked about projects he has helped to set up through UGM. Community service is compulsory for final year students. These students spend a few months usually in a local village getting to know the community. Whilst there, they share their knowledge to help set up a project that will benefit the community; in return they learn a lot more from their village hosts – interpersonal skills, life skills, communication skills, cultural skills. I saw firsthand some of the work Prof. Prijambada has done with local communities and villages to create sustainable farming practices and economic ventures. We visited a local cacao plantation, where they grow and graft their own cacao trees, harvest the pods and process them. Once processed, they get turned into delectable chocolate!

 

In addition to seminars, we visited UGM’s own agriculture school, and had a tour around the facilities. It has everything from livestock, to tropical fruit and veg crops, to biogas production to composting factory. It was encouraging to see how passionate the people were about the environment and recycling.

 

 

We also participated in making traditional herbal medicine. Jamu is traditional Indonesian medicine, made from different herbs and spices to treat an assortment of illnesses or to improve vitality. We visited Merapi Farma Herbal where they turned jamu-making into a successful business. With the help of some of the workers, we made crystallised ginger. It was really tasty and did not taste like medicine at all!

 

The week-long program reiterated how fast our world is changing, and how important it is to for communities to be able to keep up with these changes. Visiting the different communities showed me that people can be very resilient and adaptable to changing climates, both environmental, and socio-economical. This resilience is key to developing technologies that will improve community sustainability; in turn, the sustainable development of a community will improve its resilience.

It was fascinating to meet so many people from so many different countries and cultures, many of whom came from totally different backgrounds to me. This program gave me the opportunity to mingle and interact with people across disciplines. And I can’t stress how important that is. Sometimes we get so tied down and stressed by focusing on one small aspect of the global picture, that we forget what our bigger picture is. Occasionally we need to come up for air, we need to get out of our bubble or comfort zone once in awhile and venture into the world of ‘that’s-not-my-field’. Who knows what knowledge we can gain by talking to people from another discipline. Who knows what collaborations are possible. You just have to get out there.

AC21 IGS 2017, it’s been a pleasure.

#globechangers

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Community ❤

 

The Hanging Gardens of the World

Smog is something that impacts many cities around the world, especially those that are heavily built-up. Major cities in central and northern China, like Beijing, welcomed in the New Year with orange and red alerts for smog. Red alerts are the highest on the air pollution scale, usually resulting in schools and factories to close. And China’s air pollution is not a new problem, but is steadily getting worse.

Solutions? Build vertical gardens. This is not a new concept, but it is brilliantly shown by Singapore’s exquisite Gardens by the Bay. The 18 Supertrees, concrete towers encased in a steel frame, are covered with over 162,900 tropical plants originating from all over the world. These plants were chosen based on 7 different criteria, including tolerance to vertical planting, lack of soil, hardiness, and easy maintenance. Not only are these plant-clad structures highly visually-stimulating, but they also connect to some of the cooled conservatories resulting in air being recycled between conservatory and Supertree.

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Singapore’s Supertrees in the Gardens by the Bay (O.Cousins)

With Singapore aiming to cut its carbon emissions by 10% by 2020, it is hoped that the construction of these monolithic trees will raise more public awareness of the environment and how our actions can affect it.

Hanging gardens have been trialed all around the world, but covering an entire skyscraper or residential building block in lush green plants is not that easy. But that hasn’t stopped Stefano Boeri and his big leafy dreams. An architect from Milan, he owns Boeri Studio, and is already part of several projects that are taking the importance of biodiversity, climate change, urban design, and European culture into architectural design. The threat of climate change is no longer a threat, it is happening. Vertical ForestING is a concept Stefano started in 2014 when Boeri Studio designed, constructed and completed the first vertical forest in Milan.

Trees have been planted on each level, as many as can fit in one hectare of forest. The idea was to improve residential living, but ensure that urban planning did not come at a cost to the environment. By building up, it helps to eliminate urban sprawl. By adding hundreds of plants from flowering plants to small trees, not only is it creating something artistically beautiful, but it also adds biological diversity in a heavily populated urban area. The trees and shrubs provide shade, attract small wildlife, and help contribute to cleaner air.

Now, Stefano has set his sights on building more vertical cities, this time in Nanjing, China. The project aims to replicate Bosco Verticale, with 2 residential towers covered from head to toe in trees, shrubbery and hanging plants. But it also becomes part of a bigger project: Forest City. The concept of the vertical forests has been up-scaled, with a whole city designed with multiple skyscrapers covered in hanging gardens and surrounded by parks. Shijiazhuang will be the site of a new kind of city, housing 100,000 people comprising of 225 hectares. Instead of a city sprawling outwards, this city will sprawl upwards, leaving more land for natural preservation and agriculture. Due to the sheer number of trees and shrubs on one building, one square metre is anticipated to absorb 0.4 kg of CO2 a year. The green facade also helps to maintain cooler temperatures within the buildings.

The concept of vertical gardens is certainly not new, but over the last few years it has developed further. The idea of architecture being sustainable and using renewable energy sources is exciting. Constructing more vertical forests could certainly play a part in combating heavy smog and pollution in cities, and hopefully help to mitigate climate change.

I mean who wouldn’t want to wake up to green every day?

#cityjungle

 

 

Top feature image credit: Stefano Boeri Architetti